徒步上海80天第四站-群藝館京劇臉譜展

The Fourth Stop: 80 Days of Walking in Shanghai – Facial Makeup in Beijing Opera Exhibition at Shanghai Pubilc Art Museum

上海的海派文化並非地域性的,它的含義實質上是包含全中國甚至全世界的文化融合,正是因為這種融合促成了如今上海的獨特文化。您絕對找不到任何一個城市如上海般既傳統又現代,既中式又西式,來自任何一個國家任何一個地區的人都可以在這裏找到自己的歸屬及自己國家文化的影子。

Shanghai-style culture is not territorial, its meaning essentially encompasses the cultural fusion of all of China and even the world, and it is this fusion that has led to the unique culture of Shanghai today. You will never find a city as traditional and modern, Chinese style and Western-style as Shanghai, where people from any part of the world can find their own identity and a figure of their country’s culture.

這所上海群眾藝術博物館便是其中最為代表性的例子,館內常設展覽除了老上海文化專題外,亦時常展出中國其他地區的文化精粹,比如今日要向大家介紹的中國國粹京劇臉譜。

The Shanghai Pubilc Art Museum is one of the most representative examples, with permanent exhibitions on Old Shanghai culture as well as cultural highlights from other parts of China, such as today’s presentation of the Chinese national Beijing Opera Facial Makeup.

京劇臉譜的起源來自於1400多年前中國南北朝時期,當時的北齊蘭陵王出征時為了穩定軍心,戴上面具掩飾自己驚為天人的美貌,佯裝成兇猛的野獸,在面具的加持下,蘭陵王憑藉高超的武功和軍事指揮才能屢建奇功。後人為了歌頌其勇猛而編創面具舞,但這麼做影響歌手演唱,於是後來去掉了面具,將顏色直接塗在臉上衍化為後來的臉譜。

The origin of the Beijing Opera mask comes from the Northern and Southern dynasties of China more than 1,400 years ago, when King Lanling of Northern Qi, in order to stabilize his army, put on a mask to disguise his amazing beauty and pretended to be a fierce beast. Later singers created mask dances to celebrate his prowess, however, the mask obviously influenced the singer’s singing, so that the mask was removed and the colors were applied directly to the face to form the later facial makeup.

清朝乾隆年間,京劇臉譜文化得以發揚光大,藝術家們逐漸吸取各個地方戲劇特點,創造出許多歷史神話人物以及不同人物性格特徵的臉譜樣式。根據臉譜說明書,觀眾可以根據臉譜的樣式直觀的判斷出人物的忠奸善惡,從而提升觀賞演出的體驗。

During the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, the Beijing opera culture was developed, and artists gradually absorbed the characteristics of various local dramas and created many historical mythological characters and face patterns with different character traits. According to the face booklet, the audience can intuitively judge the loyalty of the characters based on the style of the makeup, thus enhancing the experience of watching the show.

臉譜的勾畫過程包含著複雜的工序,畫家必須先用眼睛目測演員的五官排列很長時間,用鉛筆在紙上勾勒出草稿,發現不協調的地方須及時調整,待定稿後,回到家用顏料細化成臉譜。第二天再將臉譜給演員查看,待對方確定自己的待角色與臉譜互相協調後,方才完成。

The process of sketching a face involves a complex process. The artist must first visually inspect the actors’ facial features for a long time, use a pencil to outline a draft on paper, and make timely adjustments to any inconsistencies. The next day, he shows the actor the painted face of the page again, and wait until the actor is sure that the face on paper fits the character’s personality.

中國的傳統藝術,只要涉及到上等畫作,都是用名貴寶石礦物顏料上色的,因此我們戲稱每個傳統畫家都是億萬富翁或是因一副畫窮困了一生。本次展出的臉譜都是畫師倪慰明從英國進口的昂貴優質顏料,以至於100年後的今天這些臉譜的色澤依舊光彩奪目。繪畫所用的毛筆白圭和狼圭,多用於中國工筆畫,即使勾勒比硬幣更小的細節也游刃有餘。

Chinese traditional art, whenever it comes to fine paintings, is colored with precious gemstones and minerals, so we jokingly call every traditional painter a billionaire or poor for painting. The facial makeup in this exhibition were all painted with expensive, high-quality pigments imported from England by Ni Wui-Ming, and today, 100 years later, they are still in brilliant color. The brushes used for the painting, which made of white jade and weasel’s hair, are mostly used for traditional Chinese realistic painting, and even smaller details than coins are easy to handle.

地址:上海市群眾藝術館,上海市徐匯區古宜路125號。

開放時間:週一~週日 全天

費用:免費

Address: Shanghai Public Art Museum, No.125 Guyi Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai.

Opening hours: Monday to Sunday daytime.

Ticket price: Free.

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發表者:Hedy Chen

数字艺术插画师,专项从事神话、历史、宗教等题材创作 I'm a digital art illustrator specializing in mythological, historical, and religious themes.

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